Identification of Redox Shuttle Generated in LFP/Graphite and NMC811/Graphite Cells
S. Buechele, A. Adamson, A. Eldesoky, T. Boetticher, L. Hartmann, T. Boulanger, S. Azam, M. B. Johnson, T. Taskovic, E. Logan, and Michael Metzger*, “Identification of Redox Shuttle Generated in LFP/Graphite and NMC811/Graphite Cells”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 170 010511 (2023). DOI: 10.1149/1945-7111/acaf44.
Unwanted self-discharge of LFP/AG and NMC811/AG cells can be caused by in situ generation of a redox shuttle molecule after formation at elevated temperature with common alkyl carbonate electrolyte. This study investigates the redox shuttle generation for several electrolyte additives, e.g., vinylene carbonate and lithium difluorophosphate, by measuring the additive reduction onset potential, first cycle inefficiency and gas evolution during formation at temperatures between 25 and 70 °C. After formation, electrolyte is extracted from pouch cells for visual inspection and quantification of redox shuttle activity in coin cells by cyclic voltammetry. The redox shuttle molecule is identified by GC-MS and NMR as dimethyl terephthalate. It is generated in the absence of an effective SEI-forming additive, according to a proposed formation mechanism that requires residual water in the electrolyte, catalytic quantities of lithium methoxide generated at the negative electrode and, surprisingly, polyethylene terephthalate tape within the cell.